The Project is to be built in phases. Having completed predevelopment, the physical phase has begun moving forward. On board are the professionals to accomplish our goals for mining, recovery and refining of the Lithium.
Usage of land is of utmost importance to Hy Power. Land not required for mining is designated for an Eco-friendly Energy Park to house tenants generating products utilizing Lithium and other minerals. The balance of mineral inventory is to be listed for Spot Sales.
Energy requirements are to be met initially by the buildout of a Solar Farm, and then later the Geothermal Turbine development, to envelope the entire project as a first of its kind sustainable vertically integrated Energy Park. In this time of change, Hy Power has an advantage by knowing that its Salton Sea property contains underground minerals attributable to producing sustainable clean Lithium.
The Salton Sea area has exceptional geothermal ore grade brine resources, with one of the largest geothermal anomalies in the United States located at the Salton Sea, now designated Lithium Valley by the State of California in Imperial County. An excerpt from the U C Riverside study.
Geothermal Brine Multi Market for mineral recovery and Lithium Extraction Technology.
New technologies may unlock the economic potential in ore grade brine produced from geothermal mineral wells. Note: Ore Geology Reviews Geochemistry of geothermal fluids and well scales, and potential for mineral recovery Darrell L. Gallup.
The United States represents the world’s largest share (27 percent) of geothermal capacity located in the western states where geothermal sources are close to surface. “Brines from the Salton Sea typically have high total dissolved solids and are rich enough in dissolved metals to be considered ore-forming fluids (WHITE et al., 1963; SKINNER et al., 1967).”
“Active convection and long residence in the brine pool appear necessary in order to homogenize the brines underlying an area of more than 100 km2 in the Salton Sea itself or possibly under an area as large as 1000 km2.”
The prime location is 1300+ acres held by the company including all mineral and water rights on the edge of one of the largest reservoirs of ore grade Lithium brines in the Americas. The property has surface water features with significant concentrations of Lithium.
Located on the edge of the San Andreas and San Jacinto Faults, the Salton Sea was created in 1909 from an accidental release of water from the Colorado River basin. Initially fresh water, salt intensified with the spillage from agricultural fertilizer from the Imperial Valley into the lake over time.
The San Andreas Fault causes earthquakes by the movement of the North American and Pacific tectonic plates sliding past each other in opposite directions. The movement causes displacement of objects on each side of the fault as stress builds up. It extends approximately 1,200 kilometers (745 miles) through California. The Salton Sea is located at the southern end of the San Andreas Fault.
The Salton Sea is an earthquake area, caused by the subduction of the Pacific plate under the North American plate and continual movement of the underground water. Over the past year there have been approximately 811 earthquakes from approximately 1 to 3.8 kilometer (.62 to 2.3 miles) in depth from the surface.
Over the years there have been numerous studies completed about the Salton Sea that included company acreage. Excerpt from 105 Page Report from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, U. S. Department of Energy, “The Potential for Renewable Mineral Development to Benefit Restoration of the Salton Sea: Analysis of Technical and Market Potential."
A well-established form of commercial mineral recovery from geothermal brines generates Lithium and other valuable elements in a unique way while reducing carbon emissions. The Company greenhouse gas emissions of geothermal Lithium recovery are expected to be the lowest in the industry.
Lithium recovery from the hot geothermal brines is designed as an efficient and clean process as it extracts the lithium and returns the unused brine back to the underground reserves to be accessed later.
Only two wells are required for brine, a production well to bring the hot brines to the surface for Lithium and another mineral recovery and reinjection well to return the unused brine back to the underground reserves. Compare this to other Lithium mining operations that dig up Lithium ore rocks from big open pit mines, pound it into powder, dissolve it and then extract the Lithium.
Our hot brine process avoids the expense and environmental issues compared to traditional mining techniques. Because the Hy Power technology of solution recovery eliminates major steps the extraction of Lithium and other minerals, the environmental impact is expected to be the lowest.
In recent years, the price of lithium has been rising as the demands grow for lithium batteries in cell phones, electronic gadgets, and increasingly electric cars. By 2030 the global market for lithium-ion batteries could jump to about $40 billion from $24 billion last year, according to Citi Research.
(Reuters) - Miners are pushing to sharply boost lithium output in the United States, as automakers in the world’s third biggest electric vehicle market are eager to cut their dependence on China for the critical battery ingredient and find more local sources. In North Carolina, Nevada and half a dozen other states, miners are working to revive the U.S. lithium industry, once the world’s largest until it fell off in the 1990s.
Global demand for the lightweight material is expected to quadruple by 2025. Miners are betting U.S. expansion will pay off with orders from battery and vehicle manufacturers who are wary of relying too much on China, which is home to the majority of the world’s lithium processing facilities and sucks up most output of top producer Australia.
Piedmont Lithium, a small mining company in the early stages of a plan to revive lithium production in North Carolina, was approached in recent months by two large U.S. automakers, Chief Executive Officer Keith Phillips said. “They are excited about the idea of securing lithium supply outside of China,” Phillips said in an interview, declining to name the automakers. Miners are also advancing lithium projects in states including Utah, California, and Arkansas.
The United States produced only about 2 percent of the world’s lithium last year, from a single mine in Nevada. But it has around 13 percent of the world’s identified resources, according to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Higher prices could make mining profitable. In May, the United States counted lithium among 35 critical minerals, which could speed up mine permitting.
“Given its close proximity and the opportunity to diversify the supply chain, we would certainly be interested in U.S.-based lithium sources - as long as it is sustainable, environmentally friendly, and competitively priced,” a spokesman for a major U.S. automaker said in an emailed response to a question. The company declined to be identified.
A resource assessment was completed by GeothermEx, Inc., of Richmond, CA, on the Project site in July 2009. The report concluded that “two deep wells (3,600 ft) have been drilled at Truckhaven. IAE TRK-1, (drilled by Iceland America in 2007) and Phillips TRK-1 (drilled by Phillips Geothermal in 1982); the latter lies in the core of the northern hot brine anomaly while the former lies at the fringe.
The chemical composition of the Salton Sea Brines is listed in a paper published by Dr McKibben from US Riverside Salton Sea Geothermal System and in similar hydrothermal ore deposits. Elements and compounds listed
There are other valuable elements in the brine at smaller concentrations that are not listed.
Note the different levels of studies. Usually, one moves from PEA to DFS by drilling more infill wells to increase the amount of "proven" resource or expansion wells to expand the indicated resource